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The Living World

There are certain characteristics that must exist for an organism to be considered living. Among them are:

Important characteristics of living things:

  • Growth

  • Reproduction

  • Tactile sensation, Ability to sense the environment

  • Metabolism

  • Self-organize

  • Mortality

Huxley correctly referred to protoplasm as the physical foundation of life because all processes take place there. It is referred to as living matter because it demonstrates all the characteristics of life.

Biodiversity: The quantity and variety of organisms that can be found on earth are referred to as biodiversity. Terms used in the classification include

Nomenclature is the process of giving organisms scientific names. The appointment of separate scientific names for plants and animals was advanced to ICBN and ICZN. The generic name and specific epithet are the two parts of a scientific name. Binomial Nomenclature, developed by Carolus Linnaeus, is the arrangement of giving names with two components. Humans as an example. In this case, "Homo" is the collective noun and "Sapiens" is the individual pronoun.

Nomenclature Rules:

Each name consists of two words: The genus and the particular epithet

  • When expressed, each word should be underlined separately when written by hand and italicized when printed

  • The generic name should start in upper case, and the specific name should start in lower case.

classification: The process of placing creatures in distinct classes or groups while taking into account certain predetermined characteristics is known as classification. These are classified as taxa.

Taxonomy is the process of classifying and organising living things based on their inner and outer cell structures, biological information, and rate of evolution.

Systematics is the study of various life forms in relation to classification, arrangement, and evolutionary correspondence. Systema Naturae was the name of the book that Linnaeus published.

Taxonomic Categories: In ascending order, it shows the rank or level within the hierarchical structure. The following seven categories are required:

Kingdom > Division > Class > Order > Family > Genus > Species

  • The term "kingdom" refers to various plant and animal divisions.

  • Incorporating related classes into a division in plants and an animal's phylum

  • Class: A class is made up of several orders that are connected to one another.

  • Order: a few related families are included.

  • A family is a grouping of related genera.

  • A genus is a collection of animal species that are related and share characteristics.

species: The fundamental unit of classification, a species refers to all members of an animal group who are closely related, descended from a common ancestor, and capable of interbreeding to produce fertile offspring.

Taxonomic Aids:

The terms "taxonomic guide" and "taxonomic aids" refer to the methods, data, and processes used for entity identification and classification. As follows:

Herbarium: The collection of assembled plant samples is kept in a herbarium. These samples are dried, squeezed, and protected on sheets before being systematically arranged in accordance with the generally accepted classification scheme. The herbarium sheet includes annotations for the sample's scientific name, date, location of collection, collector's name, family, and many other details.

Museums: It is a collection of various plant and animal samples that have been preserved for research and as a source of additional information. The entities are either preserved as dry samples or in additive arrangements in this instance. It frequently also contains a buildup of animal skeletons.

Zoological park: Wild animals are guaranteed safe natural conditions here. provides a good opportunity to concentrate on the dietary preferences and behavioural characteristics of these animals.

Botanical Garden: It consists of a collection of living plant species created as a source of identification and information. Every plant has a label that lists its family name and scientific name.

Key: Use to distinguish between plants and animals based on similarities and differences.

Taxonomy was divided by Turrill into three categories:

alpha taxonomy is concerned with gathering and classifying organisms based on gross morphology, fieldwork and herbarium research aiding in the compilation of monographs and flora, as well as in classifying plants.

beta taxonomy: concerns about gathering and classifying based on morphology and data from anatomy, genetics, cytology, physiology, etc.

omega taxonomy – considers all microscopic observations and biochemical evidence equal to new systematics based on the phonetic classification.

To Know more about Living World Detail please watch the below videos in Telugu and English by Vaishali ma'am and Ashlesha ma'am

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